Only select tissues and organs are able to spontaneously regenerate after disease or trauma, and this regenerative capacity diminishes over time. Human stem cell research explores therapeutic regenerative approaches to treat various conditions. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are derived from adult stem cells; they are multipotent and exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. They can differentiate into multiple cell types of the mesenchyme, for example, endothelial cells, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, fibroblasts, tenocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells, and sarcomere muscular cells. MSCs are easily obtained and can be cultivated and expanded in vitro; thus, they represent a promising and encouraging treatment approach in orthopedic surgery. Here, we review the application of MSCs to various orthopedic conditions, namely, orthopedic trauma; muscle injury; articular cartilage defects and osteoarthritis; meniscal injuries; bone disease; nerve, tendon, and ligament injuries; spinal cord injuries; intervertebral disc problems; pediatrics; and rotator cuff repair. The use of MSCs in orthopedics may transition the practice in the field from predominately surgical replacement and reconstruction to bioregeneration and prevention. However, additional research is necessary to explore the safety and effectiveness of MSC treatment in orthopedics, as well as applications in other medical specialties.